Friday, December 26, 2008

Indian History PT- 2003

1) Which of the following is largely associated with Megalithic cultures of south India?
1. Burials enriched by boulders of stone
2. Use of black and Redware
3. Introdution of Punch-Marked Coins
4. Urban Settlements.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:-
Codes:-
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 4 only
Ans:- (b)
Expl:- Megalithic culture of south India � Features Enriched by big stone pieces-
Contains Skelaton, Iron objects,pottery-Metal money,Scripts developed-Rural settlement

2) Which of the artifacts given below could be used as source materials for the prehistoric period in India.

1.Fossils
2.Hand Axes
3.Pottery
4.Remains of Bones

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:-
Codes:-
(a) 1, 2 and 4
(b) 1, 2 and 3
(c) 1, 3 and 4
(d) 2, 3 and 4
Ans:- (d)
Expl:- Fossils don�t play a role in pre historic Period in India as a source
material because of their non-availability.

3) Pre historic axes are found at

(a) Attirampakkam
(b) Adichanallur
(c) Arikamedu
(d) Sanur
Ans:- (a)

4) Which of the following ethnic elements is not found in the skeletal remains of Harrappan Sites?

(a) Alpine
(b) Mediterranean
(c) Mongoloid
(d) Negrito

Ans:- (d)
Expl:- The Harappan people belonged to Alpine, Proto Australoid,
Mediterranean and Mongoloid.

5) Match list I (Ideologists) with list II organization and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists.
LIST �I LIST � II
A. William Jones 1. Survey of India
B. Mortimer wheeler 2. Deccan College
C. Colin Mackenzie 3. Asiatic Society
D. H.D.Sankabia 4. Archaeological Survey of India.

Codes
A B C D
a) 3 4 1 2
b) 1 2 3 4
c) 3 2 1 4
d) 1 4 3 2
Ans:- (a)

6) Which one of the following is a Pratiloma marriage?

(a) Brahman boy with a Kshatriya girl
(b) Vaisya boy with a Sudra girl
(c) Brahman boy with a sudra girl
(d) Sudra boy with a Vaisya girl

Ans:- (d)
Expl:- The Partiloma and Anuloma marriages were occurred in later Vedic
period. Pratiloma:- Higher varna girl with a lower varna boy.
Anuloma :- (accepted) Higher varna boy with lower varna girl.

7) The archaeological culture associated with the later Vedic texts is

(a) Ochre-coloured pottery
(b) Black and Redware
(c) Painted Grey ware
(d) Northern Black polished ware

Ans:- (c)
Expl:- It was called �Neela Lohita� in later Vedic texts.

8) A lists of some ancient Indian states is give below

1) Kosala
2) Vajji
3) Magadha
4) Sakya

Which of these did not follow the monarchical system of administration?
a)1 & 2
b)2 & 4
c)1 & 4
d)2 & 3
Ans:- (b)
Expl:- There were 16 States (Mahajanapadas) during the Buddha age. Most of
the States followed Monarchical system of administration. Sakya, Kollis, Mallas,
Vajjis wer republican in characters.

9) Tolkappiyam is associated with the

(a) First Sangam period
(b) Second Sangam period
(c) Third Sangam Period
(d) Post-Third Sangam period
Ans:- (b)
Expl:- There were three Sangams. It is believed that the first Sangam was
attended by gods and sages. The second Sangam was attended by several poets
and Tolkappiyam (The earliest Tamil grammar work) was compiled. In third
Sangam, 18 major works were complied.

10) Rise of Magadha to imperial power was mainly due to its,

1. Position of strategic importance surrounded by five hills
2. Position in a richly fertile zone and good communication channel.
3. Aggressive imperial policy of the rulers.
4. Association with the activities of Mahatma Buddha.

a)1 & 2
b)1,2 & 4
c)1,2 & 3
d)3 & 4
Ans:- (c)
Expl:- Causes for rise of Magadhan Empire:-
Capitals surrounded by 5 Hills.(Rajgir) & water(Pataliputra)
Rich fertility zone and good communication.
Use of metal money
Aggressive imperial policy of ruler (Bimbisara, Ajatasatru, Mahapadma Nanda)
Use of horses and chariots.

11) Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?

(a) Chaturvarnaya � Four asramas
(b) Sudra � Service to the three varnas
(c) Dharma sastra � Works on religion and philosophy
(d) Mahamatra � Superior officials.
Ans:- (a)
Expl:- Chaturvarna mentioned 10th mandalas of Rigveda � brahmana,
Skatriyas,Vaisyas, Sudras. Chatur Ashrama (or) four ashramas were mentioned
in Later vedic texts.Ashramas means stages of life.ie.,brahmacharya,
Grahastha,vanaprastha,sanyasin.

12) The Buddhist order broke into sthaviravadins and the Mahasanghikas at the

(a) First General Council
(b) Second General Council
(c) Third General Council
(d) Fourth General Council
Ans:- (b)
Expl:-
Council Patron Place President
Ist Ajatasatru Rajgriha Mahakashyappa
[Sutta,Vinaya Pitakas were compiled by Ananda and Upali respectively]
2nd Kalasoka Vaishali Sabakami
[Division in Buddhism]
3rd Ashoka Pataliputra Moggaliputta
-Tissa
[Dhamma Pitaka was compiled]
4th Kanishka Kundalavana Vasumitra
Vice-President
AshvaGhosa
[Mahavibhasa was compiled].

13) A monastic life is essential for Salvation in Accordance with

(a) Asoka�s Dhamma
(b) Jainism
(c) Bhagavat Gita
(d) Kathopanishad

Ans:- (b)

Expl:-Jainism advocated extreme penance and Buddhism advocated Madya
marga.

14) Which of the following are associated with Jainism?

1. Anekata vada
2. Sunya vada
3. Syad vada
4. Sarvastri vada

Select the correct answer using the codes given below
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 1 and 3
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 3 and 4
Ans:- (b)
Expl:- Anekanta vada and Syad vada are associated with Jainism.That means there are so many ways for a single problem.
Sunya vada is associated with Mahayana Buddhism �[emptiness of universe].
Sarvastivada is associated with Bhagavatism.

15) James Prince took clues to descipher Ashoka�s inscriptions from bilingual records involving

(a) Brahmi and Aramaic
(b) Brahmi and Cuneiform
(c) Brahmi and Greek
(d) Brahmi and Hieroglyphics.
Ans:- (a)

16) What does the term Upasampada singnify in Buddhism?

(a) Religious merit occured from donations to the Buddhist order
(b) Property attached to a Buddhist monastery
(c) Initial conversation to Buddhism
(d) Final stage of initiation of a Buddhist monk.
Ans:- (d)
Expl:- At the age of 20,a lower ordinated Buddhist become a Bhikku. This is
called Upasampada.

17) Which one of the following was not a feature of Mauryan Royalty according to the greek writers?
(a) The king was always surrounded by armed men who were bodyguards
(b) Hunting was a favourite pastime of the kings.
(c) Animal fights were arranged for the King�s pleasure
(d) The king�s food was tested by a number of people .

Ans:- (a)
Expl:- According to Greek sources, �The king was surrounded by armed women
Who were body guards�.

18) Kautilya defines Arthasastra as a branch of knowledge that teaches how to

(a) Acquire (or form) a state and preserve it.
(b) Systematically collect revenue including land revenue.
(c) Earn wealth and to learn the techniques for doing so.
(d) Learn the way to have a meaningful life.
Ans:- (c)

19) The crystallization of the Avatara Concept and the worship of the incarnations of Vishnu were features of Bhagavatism during the

(a) Early Vedic period
(b) Later Vedic period
(c) Mauryan period
(d) Gupta period
Ans:- (d)
Expl:- A cycle of ten Avatara (or) incarnations of Vishnu was preached in Gupta
period.

20) Consider the following statements about the caste-system:-

1. Basic characteristics of the caste-system involve purity, heredity, marriage and
food.
2. Dharma in the pursuits � dharma, artha, kama means caste rulers ordained by
sastras.
3. Anirabasits means the varnasamkaras.
4. Process of proliferation of castes is described in the Purushasukta.

Which of the statements are correct?
a)1 ,2& 3
b)2 & 3
c)3& 4
d)2 & 4
Ans:- (a)
Expl:- The caste system was developed during the Gupta age. The above first three points are correct. But, Purushasukta deals with four varnas not proliferation of castes.

21) Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?

(a) Kapilar : Pari
(b) Pisiranthaiyar : Kopperun Cholan
(c) Auvaiyur : Adiyaman
(d) Tolkappiyam : Pattinappalai
Ans:- (d)
Expl:- The above first three were contemporary. But, Tolkappiyam :
Pattinappalai is not correct pair. Tolkappiyam belonged to second sangam.
Pattinappalai belonged to third sangam.

22) Match List I (Tinai) with List II (Landscape) and select the correct answer using the code given below the lists:
List I List II
A. Kurinci 1. Pastures
B. Marutam 2. Littoral
C. Mullai 3. Hills
D. Neytal 4. Plains

Codes:-
A B C D
(a) 3 2 1 4
(b) 1 4 3 2
(c) 3 4 1 2
(d) 1 2 3 4
Ans:- (c)
Expl:-
Tinai Landscape People God Occupation
Kurinci Hills Hunter Murugan Hunting
Marutam Plains Farmer Indra Farming /
Agriculture
(Ulavar)
Mullai Pasture Kurumbar Tirumal Cattle rearing
(Shepherds)
Neytal Littoral Paradavar Varuna Salt-Producing
(Fisherman) (Fishing)
Palai Desert Maravar Kottravai Burglery

23) The period of the Kushanas witnessed important developeemnts in religion, literature, art and foreign trade and contacts. In the light of this statement, which one of the following pairs does not relate to the Kushana period?

(a)Mahayana Buddhism Gandhara Art
(b)Nagasena Milinda panha
(c)Caraka samhita Nagarjuna
(d)North-Western Silk routes Kashyapa Matanga
Ans:- (c)
Expl:- Caraka samhita was written by Carakar. It deals with Medicine.

24) In the Buddhist literature, Milindapanha appears in the Question-Answer form between Nagasena and

(a) Kanishka
(b) Menandar
(c) Euthidemns
(d) Antialcidas
Ans:- (b)
Expl:- Menander was important Indo-Greek ruler (165 � 145 BC). He is also
known by the name Milinda. He was converted to Buddhism by Nagasena.
Milinda Panha means the Questions of Milinda. The book was written in Pali
language.

25) Arrange the following in the correct chronological order:-

1. Junagarh Rock inscription of Rudradaman
2. The beginning of the Saka samvat
3. Takht-i-bahi inscription
4. The beginning of the Vikram samvat
Ans:- (d)
Expl:- Vikram samvat Era � 57 B.C.
Takht-I-Bahi inscription
Saka Samvat � 78 A.D.
Junagarh Rock inscription of Rudradaman 130 � 150 A.D.

26) Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?

(a) Buddhacharita � Ashvaghosa
(b) Mrichchhakatika � Shudraka
(c) Mudrarakshasa � Vishakhadatta
(d) Brihat samhita � Aryabatta
Ans:- (d)
Expl:- Brihat samhita was written by Varahamihira. The book deals with
astronomy.

27) Which one of the following inscriptions throws light on the Lakulisa Pasupata sect?

(a) Eran inscription of Samudragupta
(b) Mathura inscription of Chandragupta
(c) Mandasor inscription of Kunskagupta
(d) Bhitari pillar inscription of Skandagupta
Ans:- (b)

28) Sravanabelgola is associated with

(a) Buddhism
(b) Jainism
(c) Ashoka Dhamma
(d) Nagarjuna
Ans:- (b)
Expl:- Chandragupta Maurya came to Sravanabelgola with his Jaina Guru
Bhathra Bahu.

29) The Kushana Kings assumed titles like Devaputra Kushana. Kanishka�s predecessors also were assuming titles like Sarvaloka Isvara Mahisvara. This shows that Kushana Kings

(a) Were devotees of Lord Shiva.
(b) Assumed high-sounding titles implying power and fame.
(c) Assumed divine Kingship
(d) Got the legends of their coins written in Sanskrit.
Ans:- (c)
Expl:- The Shakas and the Kushanas strengthened the idea of the divine origin of
kingship. The Kushanas kings were called themselves Son�s of God.

30) Which of the following famous temples Dravidian style was built by the Pallava ruler Narasinhavarman II ?

(a) Mahabalipuram Group
(b) Kailashnath temple, Kanchi
(c) Shiva temple, Tiruvadi
(d) Uleshvar temple, Kanchi
Ans:- (b)
Expl:- Dravidian style of temple architecture was originated by the Pallavas. The
earliest example of this style is Kailasnath temple, Kanchi.

31) The Prayag Prashasti of Samudragupta which mentions Kamarupa as a frontier state, records that
1. Kamarupa was then a big state.
2. The king of Kamarupa had initiated the names of the Gupta Emperors.
3. The king of Kamarupa rendered personal obeisance to the Emperor.
4. The king of Kamarupa paid him all kinds of taxes.

Which of these are correct?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 3 and 4
(d) 1 and 4
Ans:- (c)

32) Match List I (Janapadas) with List II (Capital) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:-
List I ListII
A.Kuru 1.Kosambi
B.Kosala 2.Rajagriha
C.Vatsa 3.Ayodhya
D.Magadha 4.Indraprasta
5.Pataliputra

Codes:-
A B C D
(a) 1 3 5 2
(b) 4 2 1 3
(c) 1 2 5 3
(d) 4 3 1 2
Ans:- (d)
Expl:- 16 States (Mahajanapadas) are mentioned in Angutara Nikaya (Buddhist
Text).

33) Match List I (Place ) with List II (Location in the map) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists.
A. Harappan site
B. Capital of Avanti
C. Pallava capital
D. Buddhist site

Codes:-
A B C D
(a) 2 4 3 1
(b) 1 3 4 2
(c) 2 3 4 1
(d) 1 4 3 2
Ans:- (d)
Expl: - Harappan site � Alamgirpur (1)
Capital of Avanti � Ujjain (4)
Pallava Capital � Kanchipuram (3)
Buddhist site � Sravasti (2)

34) Which of the following groups of Nobles was associated with the establishment of Bahmani kingdom in Deccan?

(a) Amiran-i-Sada
(b) Turkan-i-Chahalgani
(c) Saiyyids of Baraha
(d) Iranis
Ans: - (a)
Expl: - Amiran-i-Sada was Persian Muslim Nobles. They were called Pardesis [Foreigner].

35) The first Turkish conqueror to cross the Vindhyachala ranges was

(a) Iltumish
(b) Balban
(c) Alauddin Khalji
(d) Firuz Shah Tughlaq
Ans: - (c)
Expl: - Alauddin Khalji crossed Vindhyas and conquered Devagiri. This way occurred during Jalaluddin Khalji period.

36) Mahadji, the famous Maratha ruler of the later half of the 18th century, belonged to the House of

(a) Holkar
(b) Scindia
(c) Bhonsle
(d) Gaekwad
Ans: - (b)
Expl: - He was more powerful than the Mughal king Shah Alam II. He was dictator of Delhi 1785 � 87.

37) The troops raised by the Emperor but not paid directly by the state and placed under the charge of Mansabdars were known as

(a) Walashahi
(b) Barawardi
(c) Kumaki
(d) Dakhili
Ans: - (d)
Expl: -
Mughal Troops: -
Adhis It was a gentleman troop. It was paid a higher salary
Walashahi Royal bodyguard
Mansabs This system was introduced in military service

38) The do aspa, sih aspa rank in the Mansabdari system was introduced by

(a) Akbar
(b) Jahangir
(c) Shahjahan
(d) Aurangazeb
Ans: - (b)
Expl: - Mansabdari system was introduced by Akbar. The system had origin of central Asia. Zat rank determined the personal pay and status in the official hierarchy. Sawar rank determined the number of horsemen to be maintained. Dhaspa � Sihaspa rank was related to Sawar rank.

39) Which one of the following is not correctly matched?

(a) 1887 Indian National Congress session - Calcutta
(b) 1916 Indian National Congress session - Lucknow
(c) 1922 Indian National Congress session � Gaya
(d) 1939 Indian National Congress session � Tripuri
Ans: - (a)
Expl: - 1887, Indian National Congress session was held in Madras. Badruddin Tyabji was the president of the session.

40) Match List I (Events) with List II (Viceroys) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists.
List I List II
A) Local Self-Government 1.Lord Dufferin
B) Act of 1892 2.Lord Minto
C) Foundation of Indian National Congress 3.Lord Ripon
D) Simla Deputation 4.Lord Mayor
5.Lord Lansdowne

Codes: -
A B C D
(a) 1 2 4 5
(b) 3 5 1 2
(c) 1 5 4 2
(d) 3 2 1 5
Ans: - (b)
Expl: - Local Self Government was introduced by Lord Ripon in 1884.
Act of 1892 was introduced by Lord Lansdowne
Lord Dufferin was Governor General in 1885 [Foundation of INC].
Simla Deputation was made by some Muslim delegates to Minto in 1906.

41) The belligerent people of the frontier who created problems both for Mahmud Ghaznavi and uhammad Ghauri were

(a) Hazaras
(b) Khokhars
(c) Yurtawals
(d) Baluchis
Ans: - (b)
Expl: - Khokhars lived in Frontier of Punjab. They rebelled against Ghaznavi & Ghauri. Ghauri was murdered by a Khokhar.

42) The Venetian traveler who traveled with his wife and reached Vijayanagar around 1420 was

(a) Athanasius Nikitin
(b) Nicolo de Conti
(c) Iban Batuta
(d) Ferishta.
Ans: - (b)
Expl: - Name of the travelers who were visited in Vijayanagar Empire:-
Iban Batuta HariharaI
Nicolo Conti Devaraya I
Abdul Razzak Devaraya II
Daminigo Paes Krishna Devaraya
Barbosa Krihsna Devaraya
Fernao Nuniz Achyuta Devayara

43) The independent kingdom of Warangal came to an end in the early fifteen century as a result of its annexation by

(a) Alauddin Bahman Shah
(b) Muhammad Shah I
(c) Ahmad Shah
(d) Mujabid Shah

Ans: - (c)
Expl: - Warangal had ally with Vijayanagar. In order to wreak vengeance, Ahmad Shah invaded Warangal. He defeated and killed the ruler of Warangal and annexed most of its territories.

44) Harihar II invaded and extracted tribute from

(a) Burma
(b) Sri lanka
(c) Bengal
(d) Suvarnabhumi
Ans: - (b)
Expl: - Harihara II invaded Sri lanka and obtained tribute from its ruler.

45) The revenue assessment known as Batai, ghalla-bakshi or bhaoli was a method of crop sharing on the basis of

(a) Gross production
(b) Rough estimate of crop
(c) Past production trend
(d) Mutual agreement (Qubuliyat)
Ans: - (a)
Expl: - Batai, Galla bakshi, bhaoli, these assessement were done on the basis of gross production. Kankut assessment was done on the basis of rough estimation of crop. Nasaq-assessment was done on the basis of past experience of the field.

46) The following are connected with the first Anglo-Maratha war 1779 � 82
1. Convention of Wadgaon
2. Treaty of Purandar
3. Treaty of Surat
4. Treaty of salbai

Their arrangement in the correct chronological order:-
(a) 3 � 2 � 1 � 4
(b) 2 � 1 � 3 � 4
(c) 4 � 2 � 1 � 3
(d) 1 � 4 � 3 � 2
Ans: - (a)
Expl: - Treaty of Surat - 1775 AD
Treaty of Purandar � 1776AD
Convention of Wadgaon � 1779 AD
Treaty of Salbai � 1782 AD

47) Consider the following statements: -
The impact of British imperialistic policies on Indian agriculture was
1.Creation of a new market economy.
2.Polarisation between landowners and tillers.
3.Increase in the number of landless labourers.
4.Unemployment among village artisans.

Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1 and 4
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Ans: - (d)
Expl: - The British introduced plantation crops (ie.) Indigo, Rubber, Tea, Coffee (Creation of a new market economy). The British followed three types of land revenue policies, which were made number of landless labourers and made drift between landowners and the tillers. Annexation of princely states and commercial policies of the British led to unemployment among village artisans.

48) The Revolt of Banda Bahadur in Punjab took place due to the

(a) Exploitation of the peasantry by Mughal authorities.
(b) Religious persecution of the Sikhs by Mughals.
(c) Ambitions of Banda Bahadur.
(d) High incidence of taxation.
Ans: - (b)
Expl: - Banda Bahadur. Original Name: Lachman Das. He struck coins in the name of the Guru Govind Singh and abolished Zamindari system. In 1716, he was defeated and executed by Farukhsiyar, the later Mughal.

49) Which one of the following statements, regard to trade and commerce during Mughal rule is not correct?

(a) Shroffs transacted in hundies (Bills of Exchange) and earned lot of money.
(b) Mir Jumla and Shaista Khan monopolished trade in imported articles.
(c) Jagat seth at Murshidabad carried out trade with several foreign countries earned lot of money.
(d) Virji vora dominated the Surat market and had his offices in Ahmedabad and other trade centers of India.
Ans: - (c)
Expl: - Jagat Seth at Murshidabad was the biggest banker during Nawabship of Siraj-ud-Daula.

50) The treaty of Warna was concluded in 1731 AD, between whom amongst the following?

(a) Shahu Chhatrapati of Satara and Nizam of Hydrabad
(b) Sambhaji Chhattrapati of Kolhapur and Shahu Chhatrapati of Satara.
(c) Sambhaji of Kolhapur and East India Company.
(d) Baji Rao I and Nawab of Bhopal.
Ans:-(b)

51) The viceroy who put towards the proposal of August offer in 1940 was

a) Wawell
b) Linlithgow
c) Willingdon
d) Brabourne
Ans: -(b)
Expl: -
August offer was proposed during World War II
Salient features of August offer
Expansion of the viceroy�s executive council with 8/12 Indians.But defence, finance and home were under the British.
Formation of a war advisory council.

52) Which court was considered as the highest court of appeal in India for trying criminal cases during East India company rule?

a) Circuit court.
b) Provincial court.
c) Sadar diwani adalat.
d) Sadar nizamat adalat
Ans: -(d)
Expl: -During East India company rule, Diwani Adalat, and a Faujdari adalat were set up at district level.
Appeal court for diwani adalat was sadar diwani adalat.
Apeal court for faujdari court was sadar Nizamat adalat.

53)Match list I (year) with list II(Act) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists.

List I List II
(a) 1921 1.Bombay small holder�s relief act
(b) 1926 2.U.P.Tenancy act
(c) 1938 3. Oudh rent act
(d) 1939 4. Agra tenacy act

Codes: A B C D
(a) 2 4 1 3
(b) 3 4 1 2
(c) 2 1 4 3
(d) 3 1 4 2
Ans: -(d)
Expl:-Oudh rent act in 1921 U.P tenancy Act in 1939


54) Match list I(works) with list II Authors are select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists.
List I List II
(Works) (Authors)
A.Tapati samvarnupakhyananamu 1) Gangadhara kaul
B.Yayathio charitamu 2) Ponnaganti tela ganaraya
C.Vaijayanti vilasam 3) Sarangu Tammaiah
D.Shiva darmottaram 4) Malla Reddy

Codes: -
A B C D
a) 1 2 3 4
b) 3 4 1 2
c) 1 4 3 2
d) 3 2 1 4
Ans: -(a)

55) The quick response of the peasant agricultural to market changes in mughal India was in particular indicated by the

a) Increase in food grains production
b) Extension in the cultivation of cotton
c) Rapid increase in the tobacco cultivationduring the 17th century
d) Large scale cultivation of poppy

Ans: - (c)
Expl: -During this period, new crops was introduced. Tobacco, Maize, Capsicum, Chilli were introduced in 17th century.

56) Match list I (wars) with list II (treaties). Select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists.
Wars-List I Treaties-List II
a) Second carnatic war 1.Salbai
b) Second anglo-Mysore war 2.Bassein
c) Third anglo-Mysore war 3.Pondicherry
d) First anglo-Maratha war 4.Srirangapatnam
5.Mangalore

Codes: -
A B C D
a) 4 1 2 5
b) 3 5 4 1
c) 4 5 2 1
d) 3 1 4 5
Ans: -(b)

57) Which of the following act introduced the principle of the �Constitutional Autocracy�?

a) The Indian council act of 1909
b) Government of India act of 1919
c) The act of 1935
d) Indian independence act of 1947
Ans: - (c)

58) The monotheism and social reform preached by the Kherwar or Sapha Har movement (1870) turned into a

a) Violent movement against the Zamindars
b) Peasent movement demanding reduction in rent
c) Campaign against revenue settlement
d) Movement for a separate state
Ans: - (c)

59) Match list I (event) with list II (place) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the list.
List I List II
a) Champaran sathyagraha 1) Kerala
b) Pabna peasant movement 2) East Bengal
c) Moplah uprising 3) Bihar
d) Deccan riots 4) Ahmadnagar

Codes: -
A B C D
a) 3 1 2 4
b) 4 2 1 3
c) 3 2 1 4
d) 4 1 2 3
Ans: - (c)
Expl: -
Champaran sathyagraha Bihar 1917
Pabna peasant movement East Bengal 1860
Moplah uprising Kerala 1921
Deccan riots Ahmadnagar 1875

60) Match List I(Bhakti period saints) with List II (Propounded theories)and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists.
List I List II
(Bhakti saints) (Theories)
a) Shankaracharya 1) Pure non �dualism (shuddhadwaita)
b) Ramanujacharya 2) Mixture of monism and dualism
(Dwaitadvaita)
c) Vallabha charya 3) Unqualified monism (Adwaitaveda)
d) Nimberkacharya 4) Qualified monism (Vishista dwaita)
Codes: -

A B C D
a) 2 4 1 3
b) 3 1 4 2
c) 2 1 4 3
d) 3 4 1 2
Ans: -(d)
Expl: -
Sankaracharya-advaita �Man is a part of god
Ramanujacharya-Vishisadvaita-Soul can neither be created nor be destroyed
Vallabhacharya-suddha advaita-Salvation is through sneha (affection)
Nimbarkacharya-dwaitadvaita.

61) Consider the following statements:-
In the 18th century, the khalsa was an organization whose aim was that
1.Commonwealth of the Sikhs be a religious, military and political organization
only.
2.The administration of the khalsa and the clans must be a democratic one
3.All the individual members had the same political, religious and social
previlages
4.Anything smaking of inequality must be discouraged

Which of these statements are correct?
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
c) 3 and 4
d) 1,2,3 and 4
Ans: - (d)
Expl: -Guru Govind singh 10th guru of Sikhism founded �Khalsa�. After the name of Sikh,Singh was added to every Sikhs name.The aim of Khalsa was to eliminate caste system and bringing up brotherhood among them.

62) Consider the following events.
1.Annexation of Udaipur
2.Annexation of Jhansi
3.Annexation of Punjab
4.Annexation of Oudh

The correct chronological sequence of these events is
(a) 3-4-2-1
(b) 2-1-3-4
(c) 2-4-3-1
(d) 3-1-2-4
Ans:- (d)
Expl: - Annexation of States
Punjab � 1849
Udaipur � 1851
Jhansi � 1853
Oudh � 1856

63)The Archaeological survey of India was established during the period of

(a)Warren Hastings
(b)Lord Wellesley
(c)Lord Curzon
(d)William Bentinck
Ans:- (c)
Expl:Curzon passed the Ancient monument act of 1904.He founded archaeological department.

64)Peshwa Baji rao I obtained from Mughals the Subedars of

(a)Ahmed Nagar & Nagpur
(b)Malva and Bijapur
(c)Gujarat & Malwa
(d)Khandesh and Berar
Ans:- (c)
Expl:-Led by Baji Rao I, the Marathas Waged numerous campaigns against Mughals.Finally he won control over Malwa,Gujarat,and parts of Bundelkhand.

65)The commercial objective of Portuguese in India was to

(a)Capture territories on the western Coast
(b)Capture trade of Textiles & Spices
(c)Oust Arabs & Persians from India�s maritime trade
(d)Capture trade of Pepper & other Superior Spices
Ans:- (d)

66)During the regin of Jahangir,the title of Nadir �ul-Asr was given to

(a)Mir Sayyid Ali
(b)AbdusSamad
(c)Abul Hasan
(d)Ustad Mansur
Ans:- (d)
Expl:- Ustad Mansur was famous for Portrait Painting and Paintings of animals.

67)After a few years of the beginning of his rule,Alaudin Khalji pondered over the
problem of public discontent and cause of revolt and discerned four reasons.which one
of the following reasons did not attract his attention?

a)King was negligent & ignorant of the conditions of people
(b)Drinking Parties of Amirs were the breeding grounds for conspiracies.
(c)Excessive wealth gave both power & leisure for evil thought
(d)Bureaucratic oppression compelled the people to revolt against the king.

Ans:- (d)

68)Which of the following Agrarian Measures was not adopted by Ghiyassiddin
tughlaq?

(a)He discarded Measurement in favour of sharing
(b)The chiefs & headman of villages were given back their Pre � requisites.
(c)The basis of the demand by the Govt. was to be hukur � i� hasil (in accordance yield) with enough Provision for crop failures.
(d)He made a large reduction in the scale of revenue fixed by Alauddin and brought it down to one � sixth of the gross produce.

Ans:- (d)
Expl:-Land Revenue tax levied = 1/10 th of the gross produce during Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.

69)In Bahamani Kingdom,Sad-i-Jahan was head of the dept. of

(a)Revenue
(b)Foreign Matters
(c)Ecclesiastical & Judicial Matters
(d)Military Matters

Ans:- (c)

70)which one of the following statements about Alauddin Khalji was not correct?

(a)Alauddin did not think it necessary to invoke the sanction of the Khalifa�s name for strengthening his claims to Sovereignity.
(b) Alaudin�s objective in styling himself as deputy of the Khalifa was not to pay homage to the Khalifa but only to keep the tradition of theoretical Caliphate alive.
(c) Alauddin adopted the title of * Yamin � ul-Khalifa Nasir � i-Amir � ul Muminin to show himself as superior to Khalifa
(d)Alauddin was the first Sultan of Delhi to bring the Church under the control of the State.

Ans:- (c)
Expl:- Concept superior to Khalif was proclaimed by Mubarak � Shah Khalji
[Supreme head of Islam on earth]

71)There is an unprecedented increase in the member of Mansabdars during the reign
of

(a)Akbar
(b)Jahangir
(c)Shahjahan
(d)Aurangazeb

Ans: (d)
Exp:- More Number of Rajputs and the Marata mansabdars were in Aurangazeb�s reign.

72)�In each stage death is ready to claim her; by the poppy at its dawn by the flames in riper years�.

Which of the following historians made the above observation about the Rajput woman?
(a)Crook
(b)Utbi
(c)Alberuni
(d)Tod
Ans:- (d)

73)Which among the following was not the cause of continuous war between Cholas and Chalukyas of Kalyana?

(a)The economic factors
(b)Rivalry between the chalukyas of Kalyana & Chalukyas of Vengi
(c)Geo-political factors
(d)Rivalry to capture south India�s Foreign trade with China and South � Eastern Asia.
Ans:- (c)

74)The Mahdi movement during the reign of Islam Shah was lead by:

(a)Shaikh Hasan
(b)Shaikh Alai
(c)Makhdum � ul -Mulk
(d)Mir Sayyid Muhammad
Ans:- (b)
Expl:-Abdullah Niazi and Shaikh Ali were in Islam Shah Reign.

75)consider the following statements related to the revolt of 1857?
1.The rebels did not have a definite political perspective
2.Zeenat Mahal negotiated with the British to secure her safety
3.Maulani Ahmadullah provided leadership to the rebels
4.The rebels failed because of betrayal of the central leadership.

Which of these statements are correct?
(a)1,4
(b)2,4
(c)1,2,3
(d)1,2,4
Ans:- (c)
Expl:- central leader Bahdur Shah II, hadn�t took part in Revolt but was not involved in betrayal. He was expelled to Rangoon, after math of Revolt .

76) Who was elected as the permanent president of Muslim league in 1908?

(a)Nawab Salimullah
(b)Syed Ahmed Khan
(c)Aga Khan
(d)Syed Amir Ali
Ans:- (c)
Expl:- Muslim league founded : 1906 (30th Dec )
1908 � 1912 � Aga Khan � President: 1912 : Jinnah joined & adopted �Self-Govt� Resolution. So, Aga Khan left the party.

77) Who was the advocate at the famous INA trials?

(a)Bhulabhai Desai
(b)Asaf Ali
(c)Rajendra Prasad
(d)Rajaji
Ans:- (a) and (b)
Expl:- Jawaharlal Nehru, Tej Bahadur Sapru � were other two famous INA advocates.

78) The twin principles of Mahatma Gandhi�s , Ram Rajya were,

(a)Truth & Non-Voilence
(b)Right means& Right ends
(c)Khadi & Ahimsa
(d)Satyagraha & Non-Voilence
Ans:- (b)

79) Sikandar Hyat Khan represented the

(a)Muslim league
(b)Khaudai Khidmatgars
(c)Krishak Praja Party
(d)Unionist Party
Ans:- (d)
Expl:- He started Unionist Party in Punjab. In 1937 Elections, he formed Govt. in Punjab. Pakistan Resolution of 1940 was drafted by Sikkandar Hayad Khan.

80) What is the correct sequence of following events.
1.Third Maratha War
2.Third Battle of Panipat
3.Third Mysore War
4.Third Burmese War

Codes
(a)1-3-2-4
(b)2-3-1-4
(c)3-4-1-2
(d)4-1-3-2
Ans:- (b)

Expl:- Govt. General
III Maratha War � 1817 �18 �Lord Hastings
III Panipet War � 1761 � Ahmad Shah Abdali Vs Maratha
III Mysore War - 1790 � 92 � Tipu Vs Cornwallis
III Burmese War � 1885 � 86 � Lord Duffrein

81)Which of the following is correctly matched?

(a)Malik Kapur � Rajendra I
(b)Singaya Nayaka � Pratapa Rudra
(c)Ravivarman Kulasekara � Ulugh Khan
(D)Kampiladeva � Mohmud Tughlaq (MBT)
Ans:- (d)
Expl:- Kampiladeva and Muhamed Bin Tughlaq were comtemporaries.

82)During the reign of which of the followinig did the Vijayanagar state come into existence?

(a)Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
(b)Muhamad Bin Tughlaq
(c)Firoz Shah Tughlaq
(d)Khiza Khan
Ans:- (b)
Expl:- Harihara & Bukka founded the Empire in 1336 on the river Bank of Tungabatra during MBT�s regin

83)The illustrations excluded on cloth belong to which of the following Manuscripts?

(a)Harivamsha
(b)Hamza nama
(c)Jami-at Tawarikh
(d)Akbar nama
Ans:- (b)

84)The outbreak of five famines in India during the first quarter of 19th century was due to
1.Decline of Indian Industries
2.Immobility of Agricultural labours
3.Failure of Monsoons
4.Import of Manufactured goods.

Which of these are correct?
(a)2,3
(b)1,4
(c)1,2,3
(d)2,3,4
Ans:- (c)
Expl:- All were the conditions prevailed during British period. The first three reasons are linked directly to Agriculture. The fourth one could not contribute to famines in any means.

85) In the 19th century there was a Phenomenal increase in the pressure of population on land because the

(a)Introduction of commercial crops attracted the peasantry to agriculture.
(b)Ruin of handicrafts & Village industries drove the population to Agriculture.
(c)Fall of native Governments has reduced the avenues of employment.
(d)Urban population began to migrate to the rural areas for reason for security.
Ans:- (b)
Expl:- The commercial policies of British, Annexation of native states were the reasons for ruin of handicrafts and village industries which led to over crowding in Agriculture.

86)The term �Dastak� implies

(a)Free pass or duty-free trade
(b)A riot
(c)A port near Hoogly
(d)Market place
Ans:- (a)
Expl:- In 1717, Farukshiyar issued Firman to East India Company(EIC). This was said to be the �Magna Carta� of the EIC. �Dustak� pass was issued only to Company�s officials by Farukshiyar. But, its misuses led to the Battle of Plassey.

87)The French challenge to British supremacy came to an end with the Battle of

(a)Wandiwash
(b)Buxar
(C)Sriranga pattinam
(d)Plassey
Ans:- (a)
Expl:- Wandiwash took place in 1760. [English vs French]. English General was Sir Eyre Coot. The French forces were led by Counte-de-lally. English won in the battle.

88)Which famous social reformer wrote the books Jnana Yoga, Karma Yoga & Raja Yoga?

(a)Swami Vivekananda
(b)Ranade
(c)Raja Ram Mohan Roy
(d)Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
Ans:- (a)

89)At which place was the All India Khilafat Conference held in 1919?

(a)Lucknow
(b)Delhi
(c)Aligarh
(d)Porbandor
Ans:- (b)
Expl:- The position of the sultan of Turkey, also recorded as religious head for islam was undermined by the British & his allies at the end of World War I. It humiliated Indian muslims. So, All India Khilafat committee was formed under the leadership of Mohamed Ali & Saukat Ali.

90)An exquisite example of �Nagara� style of architecture is provided by the

(a)Kailashnath Temple, Kanchi.
(b)Lingaraj Temple, Bhubaneshwar.
(c)Brahadeswara Temple, Tanjore.
(d)Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, Khajuraho.
Ans:- (b)
Expl:- a,c � Dravidian style of architecture
b � Nagara style of architecture
d- Chandalla school of architecture

91)Who led the Maratha forces in the 3rd Battle of Panipat in 1761?

(a)Viswanath Rao
(b)Sadashiva Rao
(c)Madhava Rao
(d)Dattaji Scindia
Ans:- (b)
Expl:- In third Panipat War, nominal commander was Vishwanath Rao. But actual command being in the hands of his cousin Sadashiva Rao.

92)Who encouraged the practice of ladies accompanying their husbands to the battle field?

(a)Sadashiva Rao
(b)Ragunatha Rao
(c)Balaji Rao
(d)Madhava Rao
Ans:- (c)

93)Match List I [Foreign Travellers] with List II (Remarks) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
LIST I LIST II
A.Abdur Razzq 1.�The circumference of the city is sixty miles.There are
about 90,000 men fit to bear arms�
B.Nicolo de conti 2.�There is a wide gap n the standards of common people�
C.Domingo Paes 3.�The city is such that eye has not seen nor ever heard of
any place resembling it upon the nhole earth�
D.Athanasins Nikitin 4.�The kig is of medium height and of fair completion and
good figure,rather fat than thin,he has on his face signs
of small-box�
Codes:-

A B C D
(a) 3 1 4 2
(b) 4 2 3 1
(c) 3 2 4 1
(d) 4 1 3 2
Ans:- (a)

94)RajaRaja I and Rajendra I commemorated their victories by which one of the following methods

(a)Erecting temples
(b)Erecting Pillars
(c)Ordering inscriptions to be written
(d)issuing coins
Ans:- (a)
Expl:-RajaRajaI,Rajendra I marked their victories by erecting a number of Shiva and Vishnu Temples at various places like Brahadeswara temple,Gangai Konda Cholapuram temple.

95)Which of the following Indians was dismissed from the Indian Civil service y the British?

(a)Satyendranath Tagore
(b)Surendranath Banerjee
(c)R.C.Dutt
(d)Dadabai Naoroji
Ans:- (b)
Expl:-Surendranath Banerjee was dismissed from the Indian civil service by the British.The superior British officers could not tolerate his independent mind.He started Indian Association of Calcutta in 1876.

96)Who proposed the preamble before the Drafting committee of the constitution?

(a)Jawaharlal Nehru
(b)B.R.Ambedkar
(c)B.N.Rao
(d)Mahatma Gandhi
Ans:- (a)
Expl:- Originally, the preamble was known as objective resolution.It was drafted and moved to the Drafting committee by Jawaharlal Nehru.

97)The Theosophical society was founded in the U.S.A by

(a)Dr.Annie Besant
(b)A.O.Hume
(c)Tilak and Gokhale
(d)Madam Blavatsky and olcott
Ans:- (d)
Expl:- the Theosophical society was founded in New York U.S.A in 1875.The Head Quarters was shifted to Adyar-Madras in 1882.

98)The suggestion of transfer of two central governments,India and Pakistan on the basic of Dominion status was given by

(a)Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Patel
(b)Gandhiji and Jawahar lal Nehru
(c)Lord Mountbatten and Jawaharlal Nehru
(d)V.P menon and Sardar Patel
Ans:- (d)
Expl:- the formula of freedom with Partition was coming to be widely accepted well before Mountbatten took over charge.The plan was suggested by V.P.Menon and then accepted by Sardar Patel.

99)The following four important battles were fought in India at one time or the other
1.Chausa
2.Dharmat
3.Haldighati
4.Khanwa

Th correct Chronological order in which these battles were fought is
(a)1-2-3-4
(b)4-3-2-1
(c)4-1-3-2
(d)3-2-1-4
Ans:- (c)
Expl:-
Battles:-
Chausa-1539-Humayun and Shershah
Dharmat 1658-Darasikoh forces and Aurangazeb
Haldighati 1576-Akbar,Rana Pradapsingh
Khanwa-1527-Babar and Ranasangha

100)Which of the following was the first Mughal emperor to lead a military expedition to Bengal?

(a)Babar
(b)Humayun
(c)Jahangir
(d)Shahjahan
Ans:- (b)
Expl:-The Babar took battle against Mohamud Lody in Ghokra War.The place was situated in the eastern Uttar-Pradesh.

101)which of the following new techniques in cotton textile industry was/were introduced in India by the Turks in the medieval period?
1.Spindle
2.Spinning Wheel
3.Water Frame

Select the correct answer using the code given below:-
Codes:-
(a)1,2and 3
(b)2 and 3
(c)1 and 3
(d)2 only

Ans:- (a)

102)Indian nationalists were bitterly disappointed in the closing stages of the first world ware due to the reason that.
(1)Only few India Princes Participated in the imperial conference and peace conference
(2)The closing of the world war brought to India not peace but the sword
(3)Gandhi was prevented by the government boom processing to delhi in 1919.
(4)The Rowlatt act was passed in 1919.

hich of these statement are correct?
(a)1 and 3
(b)1 and 4
(c)2 and 4
(d)2 and 3
Ans:- (c)

103)Consider the following statements:-
The Yandaboo Treaty of 1826 paved the way for
1.Guaranteed protection to the British merchants
2.An Indemnity of a crore of rupees to the British
3.The pitched battles between the Burmese and the English
4.The territorial acquisition of assam for tea.

Which of these statements are correct
(a)1 and 2
(b)2 and 3
(c)3 and 4
(d)2 and 4
Ans:- (b)
Expl:- The Burmese occupation of Arakan and Assam led to first anglo-burmese was in 1824.The War was ended with Treaty of Yandabo-(silent features)th govt. of Burma agreed:-
1.to pay one crore of rupees as war compensation
2.to cede its coastal provinces of
arakan and Tenasserim
3.to abandon all claims to Assam,cacher and Jaintia
4.to recognize manipur as a independent state
5.to negotiate a commercial treaty with Britain
6.to accept a British Resident at Ava while posting a Burmese envoy at Calcutta.

104)consider the following statements
When the Prime Minister of England Stated that the British element in the Indian civil service was �the steel frame� of the administration, eternally indispensable to India,its consequences were that
1.It resulted in the boycott of the visit of the Prince of Wales
2.It retarded Indianisation in opposition to the declared policy of the Parliament of England
3.It resulted in repressive measures against the congress
4.The Lee commission on the public services made liberal recommendations.

Which of these statements is are correct
(a)1,2 and 3
(b)1,2 and 4
(c)2 and 4
(d)4 only
Ans:- (d)
Expl:-The Lee Comission was appointed in 1922.It recommended Indianisation of Civil Service.

105)wchich of the following Nawabs was deposed by the English on the annexation of Awadh to British dominion in 1856?

(a)Saadat Khan Bburhan-ul-Mulk
(b)Safdar Jang
(c)Wajid Ali Shah
(d)Birjis Qadar
Ans:- (c)
Expl:- Founder of Oudh dynanty : Saadat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulk
Nawab of oudh during annexation :Wajid Ali Shah
Nawab of oudh during 1857 revolt : Birjis Qadar

106)The Kuka movement to overthrow the British rule was organized in

(a)Uttar Pradesh
(b)Bihar
(c)Punjab
(d)Bombay

Ans:- (c)
Expl:-Kuka movement started by Bhagat ,Jawharmal in 1872.It was a religious,Political movement.
Main objectives of Kuka Movement:-
i)Reforming Sikhism
ii)To drive out the British and to restore the sikh sovereignty in Punjab.

Directions:
The following fourteen (14) items consist of two statements, one labelled as the �Assertion (A)� and the other as �Reason (R)�. You are to examine these two statements carefully and select the answers to these items using the codes given below:
Codes:
(a)Both A and R are individually true and R is correct explanation of A
(b)Both A and R are individually true but R is not correct explanation of A
(c)A is true but R is false
(d)A is false but R is true

107)Assertion (A): The history of the Indo-Greeks can be reconstructed mainly on the evidence of their coins.
Reason (R): Major contributions of the Indo-Greeks towards Indian culture were in the field of coinage.

Ans:- (a)
Expl:- The Indo-Greek rule is important in the history of India. Because, the Ruler of Indo-Greek issued number of coins.
A & R are correct : Correct Explanation.

108)Assertion (A): The inner side of the Megalithic pottery in South India has black colour and on the outer side it has red colour.
Reason(R): These colouors were painted on the pottery separetely.

Ans:- (c)

109)Assertion (A): The Sanyasis and the Fakirs revolted against the British in Bengal.
Reason (R): The Sanyasis and the Fakirs were opposed to the British interference in Indian religious traditions.

Ans:- (a)

110)Assertion (A): The British introduced in India the modern concept of the rule of law.
Reason (R): The British did not recognize the existing Personal Civil Law in India.

Ans:- (c)

111)Assertion (A): Alauddin Khalji enhanced the revenue demand to half of the total produce.
Reason (R): Larger supplies of grain were needed to keep the market prices at low levels.

Ans:- (a)

112)Assertion (A): Inscriptions of Ashoka have been found scattered throughout his Empire. But no inscription of this Emperor has been discovered from the north-eastern part of the country.
Reason (R): Because this part of the country did not form a part of his Empire.

Ans:- (a)

113)Assertion (A): Desiring to make his Dhamma instructions percolate down to the common people, Ashoka used besides Prakrit, Greek and Aramaic in his Edicts found in the North-Western parts of his Empire.
Reason (R): Greek and Aramaic speaking people formed a part of his population in the North-West.

Ans:- (a)

114)Assertion (A): Indus Valley Civilization is technically and more correctly known as Harrappan Culture.
Reason (R): Harappa is the type site of that civilization.

Ans:- (b)

115)Assertion (A): Construction of free standing temple became a feature of Indian architecture since the Gupta period onwards.
Reason (R): Development of image worship marked this period.

Ans:- (a)

116)Assertion (A): Mahatma Gandhi observed fast at Poona in 1932.
Reason (R): Mahatma Gandhi was opposed to the provision of separate electorate rights for Harijians in the Communal Awards.

Ans:- (a)

117)Assertion (A): R.C. Dutt authored the book �Poverty and Un-British Rule�.
Reason (R): He wanted to expose India�s growing poverty.

Ans:- (c)
Expl:- Poverty and Un-British rule in India was written by Dadabai Nauroji.

118)Assertion (A): Lala Lajpat Rai died of Police lathi-charge during the march against Simon Commission.
Reason (R): Simon Commission did not consist of even a single Indian as a Member.

Ans:- (b)

119)Assetion (A): Mahatma Gandhi suspended the Non-Coperation Movement in 1922.
Reason (R): C.R. Dass and Motilal Nehru resented the Movement.

Ans:- (c)

120)Assertion (A): Indian Industrial Commission was appointed in 1916.
Reason (R): This came as a benefit out of the fact that the Tata Iron and Steel Works rendered much service to the British in the War of 1914.

Ans:- (a)

Chandrayaan-I finds Iron Minirals on Moon

The moon mineralogy mapper (M3), a scientific instrument of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) onboard India's first lunar mission Chandrayaan-1, found iron-bearing minerals on the lunar surface, the US space agency said on Thursday.

"The mapper spectrometer has beamed images of the Orientale Basin region of the moon, indicating abundance of iron-bearing minerals such as pyroxene. Using different wavelengths of light, the instrument has also revealed for the first time changes in rock and mineral composition," M3 principal investigator Carle Pieters said in a statement hosted on NASA Website.

Data from the 7-kg mapper provides space scientists first opportunity to examine lunar mineralogy at high spatial and spectral resolution.

The Orientale Basin is located on the moon's western limb. M3 captured the data last week when Chandrayaan was orbiting the moon at an altitude of 100 km.

"The imaging spectrometer provides us with compositional information across the moon that we have never had access to before. Our ability to identify and map the composition of the surface in geologic context provides a new level of detail needed to explore and understand the earth's nearest celestial neighbour," affirmed Pieters, who teaches at Brown University in Rhode Island.

The mapper was selected as a mission of opportunity through the NASA discovery programme. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory designed and built the instrument at Pasadena in California.

"M3 will also help in characterising and mapping lunar minerals for knowing the moon's early geological evolution. Its compositional maps will improve our understanding of the early evolution of a differentiated planetary body and provide a high-resolution assessment of lunar resources," Chandrayaan project director M. Annadurai averred.

M3 is one of the 10 instruments onboard the unmanned Chandrayaan, conducting experiments while the spacecraft orbits over the moon next two years.

Five instruments were indigenously built by the state-run Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), while the remaining six payloads are of foreign origin, including three from the European Space Agency, two from NASA and one from Bulgaria.

Chandrayaan was launched on October 22 onboard the 316-tonne polar satellite launch vehicle (PSLV-C11) from ISRO's Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota spaceport, about 80 km north of Chennai.

After traversing 3,84,000 km through the deep space for 18 days, the spacecraft entered the lunar orbit on November 8 and its moon impact probe was lowered on the moon's surface on November 14.

Thursday, December 25, 2008

Eight Bills in 17 Minutes

In a strange year for Parliament, Lok Sabha witnessed one of its strangest episodes. On Tuesday, the last day of the absurdly named "monsoon session", it passed eight bills in 17 minutes. The absurdity was highlighted by the fact that even as these bills were passed, for quite a while afterwards parliamentary reporters were scrambling to get clarity on the content of the bills passed. Or perhaps in a calendar year, in which only 46 sittings were held, it was our MPs' way of letting all know that lack of discussion shall not hold them from transacting brisk legislative business.

Real Estate Developers want Ease in systems in Housing Sector

Common laws across the country, single-window approval system and reduction in indirect costs are among the various suggestions made by the Confederation of Real Estate Developers' Association of India (CREDAI) to facilitate affordable housing for end-users.

These suggestions come even as the Government, the Reserve Bank of India and commercial banks of both public and private genres have come out with a serious of fiscal and monetary measures to boost the housing sector.

T. Chitty Babu, Secretary of the Tamil Nadu unit of CREDAI, said common laws across the country would make the system transparent and encourage regional players to go national. ``Uniform development charges, infrastructure and impact fee and rationalization of stamp duty will accelerate development,'' he added. This would go a long way to encourage people to invest in any part of the country.

In an interaction with this correspondent, Mr. Babu said ``the need of the hour is for the Government to introduce the concept of a single-window system on the lines created for the IT (information technology) sector so that the approvals for the projects can be obtained within a maximum time frame of a month as against the current scenario of a year. This could easily ensure a saving of at least Rs.300 per square feet,'' he pointed out.


--
रौशन
http://kuhasa.blogspot.com

RPL commissions Jamnagar Oil Refinery

Reliance Petroleum on Thursday announced commissioning of its only-for-exports oil refinery in a Special Economic Zone at Jamnagar in GujaratThe commissioning of the 580,000 barrels per day (29 million tons a year) capacity refinery by RPL, a unit of Mukesh Ambani-run Reliance Industries, will make Jamnagar the biggest oil refining hub in the world.

"RPL commenced its crude processing (today). The secondary processing units are now under synchronization and commissioning," a company press statement said.

"The entire refinery complex is expected to attain full capacity shortly," it said but did not give a specific date.

The new unit has come up adjacent to Reliance's existing 660,000 bpd (33 million tons a year) mostly-for-exports refinery at Jamnagar.

"RPL refinery has been completed in 36 months from concept to commissioning, which is a new benchmark for building a grass-root refinery of this scale and complexity," the statement said.

Company's Chairman Mukesh Ambani said: "Commissioning this large and complex refinery in record time... yet again demonstrates the strength of our project management skills."

"We, at Reliance, continue to be committed to the long term potential of the refining sector. We will leverage our competitive advantages of scale, complexity and capability to process a wide range of crude oils and flexibility to produce high quality transportation fuels," he said.

RPL, in which the US energy major Chevron Corp hold five per cent stake, will produce petrol and diesel complaint to Euro-IV emission norms.

Some Facts about Mammals

Largest and Heaviest

Blue Whale
Average length 30.5 m
Largest ever recorded 33.58 m
Pregnant female may weigh 203 tones

Smallest Land Mammal

Kitti's hog-nosed Bat (Found in Thailand)2
Wing span 16 cm
weight 1.75 to 2 g

Smallest Marine Mammal

Probably Heaviside's dolphin (Found in South Atlantic)
Length 1.22 m
Weight 41 kg

Rarest Mammal Rarest Mammal

Aspecies of tenrec from Madagascar is only known from a single specimen.

Fastest Mammal

Cheetah (found in Africa, Middle East, W. Asia) can run at 100 kph over short distances.
Pronhorn antelope (Found in USA)
Can run at 60 kph over long distances.

Slowest Mammal

Three-toedsloth (found in South America) covers about 5 m a minute in trees, and only 2 m aminute on the ground.

Highest Mammal

Yak (found in Tibet and China) climbs to 6000 m to feed.

Some facts about Reptiles

Largest and Heaviest Estuarine Crocodile (found in Asia, Australia)
Average length (male) up to 4.3 m
Longest ever recorded 8.23 m
Largest Lizard Komodo dragon (found in Indonesian Island)
length up to 3 m
largest Turtle Pacific leatherback turtle
Average length (male) up to 2.13 m
weight up to 363 kg.
Fastest Amphibian (On Land) Six-linedracerunner (found in USA)
can run at 29 kph
Fastest Amphibian (In Water) (In Water) Pacific Leatherback turtle can swim at 35 kph
Longest Snake Reticulated Python (found in India and South-east Asia)
Average length more than 6 m
Longest ever recorded 10 m
Most Poisonous Snake Sea Snake (found in North West Australia)
Most Poisonous Land Snake Fierce Snake(found in Australia) has most toxic venom.

Some Facts about Amphibians

Largest Amphibian Chinese gaintsalamander
Average length 1m
Longest ever recorded 1.52 m
Weight 11 to 13 kg.
Largest Frog Goliath Frog (found in Africa)
Length of body 33.5 cm
Largest Toad Probably marinetoad (found in South America)
Length 22.9 cm.
Largest Newt Ribbed newt (found in Africa)
Length upto 40 cm
Weight 450 g
Highest Toad Common toad
One found in Himalayas at 8000 m
Most Poisonous Kokoiarrow-poison frog (found in South America)
A tiny amount of toxin is enough to kill a man.
Smallest Newt Striped newt (found in USA)
length 5.1 cm

Some facts about Birds

Largest Bird (Flightless) North African Ostrich
Height (male) 2.74 m
Weight 156.5 kg
eggs up to 20 cm long
Largest Wing Span Wandering albatross (found in Southern Oceans)
Average length (male) 3.15 m
Largest ever recorded 3.6 m
Smallest Bird Helena's humming bird (found in Cuba)
Average length (male) 5.8 cm
(head and body 1.5 cm)
Weight 2 g
Egg 1.14 cm long
Rarest Bird Mauritius Kestrel (found in Mauritius)
About 5 are thought to remain.
Fastest Bird Spine-tailed swift (found in Russia and Himalayas)
flies at 171 kph
Longest Flight Arctic tern
May cover 40,000 km a year migrating from Arctic to Antarctic and back.
Fastest Under Water Gentoo Penguin swims at 36 kph
Largest Nest Bald eagles
one was 2.9 m wide and 6 m deep.